Review paper
Published in: Holistic Approach Environ. 10(2020) 4, pp. 124 – 140
Paper reference number: HAE-1928
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Arambam Sophia*, Mayanglambam Sarda Devi**

* Manipur University, Department of Economics, Canchipur, Manipur, India

** Kakching Khunou College, Department of Economics, Kakching Khunou, Manipur, India



The issue of environment versus human activity has become one of the most common global topics. Global warming, greenhouse effect, air pollution, land and water pollution are all results of human activity. Human behaviour lies at the root of both conservation and environmental damage. The rapid growth of population and economic development are some of the greatest threats to the environment through the expansion and intensification of agriculture, uncontrolled growth of urbanization and industrialization, and the destruction of natural habitats. The paper seeks to study the unique features of Manipur, a pristine land situated in the North-East corner of India which is noted for its rich biodiversity, abundance of medicinal plants with various healing properties and yet it is facing the threat of environmental degradation and pollution. It is mainly rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization in urban areas, lack of awareness about environmental issues, poverty and Jhuming cultivation practices in the hills that have led to environmental damage, with its concomitant effects on human development, for it is ultimately the people of the state who have to suffer the effects of environmental damage. The paper gives a broad picture of the abundant green resources and unique fauna of Manipur and the environmental problems that threaten its biodiversity.

Keywords: environment, urbanization, population, pollution, medicinal plants, Jhuming
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